GDPR articles (EN)

This page contains the articles of the GDPR. Please note that this is not the official version; for that, see the official version (and the 2018 corrigendum). There may be errors here; if you find any, please contact us or create an issue on GitHub.

The following was generated from XML files of the consolidated GDPR (i.e., with corrections integrated). These files did not include the preamble containing the recitals, so these were added from the XML version of the original GDPR, and the preamble corrections were then merged in.

This is a service by The texts are © European Union, 2018.

Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (Text with EEA relevance)

CHAPTER I – General provisions

Article 1

Subject-matter and objectives

Article 2

Material scope

Article 3

Territorial scope

Article 4


CHAPTER II – Principles

Article 5

Principles relating to processing of personal data

Article 6

Lawfulness of processing

Article 7

Conditions for consent

Article 8

Conditions applicable to child's consent in relation to information society services

Article 9

Processing of special categories of personal data

Article 10

Processing of personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences

Article 11

Processing which does not require identification

CHAPTER III – Rights of the data subject

Section 1 – Transparency and modalities

Article 12

Transparent information, communication and modalities for the exercise of the rights of the data subject

Section 2 – Information and access to personal data

Article 13

Information to be provided where personal data are collected from the data subject

Article 14

Information to be provided where personal data have not been obtained from the data subject

Article 15

Right of access by the data subject

Section 3 – Rectification and erasure

Article 16

Right to rectification

Article 17

Right to erasure (right to be forgotten)

Article 18

Right to restriction of processing

Article 19

Notification obligation regarding rectification or erasure of personal data or restriction of processing

Article 20

Right to data portability

Section 4 – Right to object and automated individual decision-making

Article 21

Right to object

Article 22

Automated individual decision-making, including profiling

Section 5 – Restrictions

Article 23


CHAPTER IV – Controller and processor

Section 1 – General obligations

Article 24

Responsibility of the controller

Article 25

Data protection by design and by default

Article 26

Joint controllers

Article 27

Representatives of controllers or processors not established in the Union

Article 28


Article 29

Processing under the authority of the controller or processor

Article 30

Records of processing activities

Article 31

Cooperation with the supervisory authority

Section 2 – Security of personal data

Article 32

Security of processing

Article 33

Notification of a personal data breach to the supervisory authority

Article 34

Communication of a personal data breach to the data subject

Section 3 – Data protection impact assessment and prior consultation

Article 35

Data protection impact assessment

Article 36

Prior consultation

Section 4 – Data protection officer

Article 37

Designation of the data protection officer

Article 38

Position of the data protection officer

Article 39

Tasks of the data protection officer

Section 5 – Codes of conduct and certification

Article 40

Codes of conduct

Article 41

Monitoring of approved codes of conduct

Article 42


Article 43

Certification bodies

CHAPTER V – Transfers of personal data to third countries or international organisations

Article 44

General principle for transfers

Article 45

Transfers on the basis of an adequacy decision

Article 46

Transfers subject to appropriate safeguards

Article 47

Binding corporate rules

Article 48

Transfers or disclosures not authorised by Union law

Article 49

Derogations for specific situations

Article 50

International cooperation for the protection of personal data

CHAPTER VI – Independent supervisory authorities

Section 1 – Independent status

Article 51

Supervisory authority

Article 52


Article 53

General conditions for the members of the supervisory authority

Article 54

Rules on the establishment of the supervisory authority

Section 2 – Competence, tasks and powers

Article 55


Article 56

Competence of the lead supervisory authority

Article 57


Article 58


Article 59

Activity reports

CHAPTER VII – Cooperation and consistency

Section 1 – Cooperation

Article 60

Cooperation between the lead supervisory authority and the other supervisory authorities concerned

Article 61

Mutual assistance

Article 62

Joint operations of supervisory authorities

Section 2 – Consistency

Article 63

Consistency mechanism

Article 64

Opinion of the Board

Article 65

Dispute resolution by the Board

Article 66

Urgency procedure

Article 67

Exchange of information

Section 3 – European data protection board

Article 68

European Data Protection Board

Article 69


Article 70

Tasks of the Board

Article 71


Article 72


Article 73


Article 74

Tasks of the Chair

Article 75


Article 76


CHAPTER VIII – Remedies, liability and penalties

Article 77

Right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority

Article 78

Right to an effective judicial remedy against a supervisory authority

Article 79

Right to an effective judicial remedy against a controller or processor

Article 80

Representation of data subjects

Article 81

Suspension of proceedings

Article 82

Right to compensation and liability

Article 83

General conditions for imposing administrative fines

Article 84


CHAPTER IX – Provisions relating to specific processing situations

Article 85

Processing and freedom of expression and information

Article 86

Processing and public access to official documents

Article 87

Processing of the national identification number

Article 88

Processing in the context of employment

Article 89

Safeguards and derogations relating to processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes

Article 90

Obligations of secrecy

Article 91

Existing data protection rules of churches and religious associations

CHAPTER X – Delegated acts and implementing acts

Article 92

Exercise of the delegation

Article 93

Committee procedure

CHAPTER XI – Final provisions

Article 94

Repeal of Directive 95/46/EC

Article 95

Relationship with Directive 2002/58/EC

Article 96

Relationship with previously concluded Agreements

Article 97

Commission reports

Article 98

Review of other Union legal acts on data protection

Article 99

Entry into force and application

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.
  1. ^ Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical regulations and of rules on Information Society services (OJ L 241, 17.9.2015, p. 1).
  2. ^ Regulation (EC) No 765/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 setting out the requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 339/93 (OJ L 218, 13.8.2008, p. 30).
  3. ^ Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents (OJ L 145, 31.5.2001, p. 43).